IEE Projects

Read about our current projects below, or browse our archive of past projects.


Our campus sustainability plan project provides staff support to the VLS Campus Sustainability Committee. On November 26th, 2012 Vermont Law School President and Dean, Marc Mihaly signed the American College & University Presidents’ Climate Commitment. As a signatory of this commitment, Vermont Law School is now taking necessary steps to implement a comprehensive plan towards climate neutrality. To develop this plan, Dean Mihaly has established a Campus Sustainability Committee and retained the Institute for Energy and the Environment to assist the committee in developing the Law School’s first Campus Sustainability Plan. In addition to providing support to the committee an IEE faculty member and a student research associate are members of the committee, along with representatives from Buildings and Grounds, the Campus Greening Committee, and the Office for Institutional Advancement. The committee has developed procedures for the VLS Green Revolving Loan Fund and approved building efficiency, solar energy, and electric vehicle charging projects which are all at various stages of implementation.


In the Fall of 2014, the Institute for Energy and the Environment launched its new Energy Clinic, which introduces students to the practical aspects of real world energy projects. The clinic provides services to community groups interested in promoting local ownership of clean energy resources. From the stage of project conceptualization to construction, students are responsible for drafting, reviewing, and explaining project related agreements, manuals, statutes, regulations, local ordinances, and tax codes to assist the development of community energy projects. The Energy Clinic represents a unique opportunity to participate in meaningful sustainable energy transactions. Recently the Energy Clinic teams are assisting clients on community solar and micro hydro development, planning for anaerobic biodigesters to generate energy from farm and food waste, low income access to solar ownership, and energy efficiency assessment and implemenation. More information on this project is available from the Energy Clinic.


The Energy Security and Justice Program investigates how to provide ethical access to energy services and minimize the injustice of current patterns of energy production and use. It explores how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable, efficient, environmentally benign, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to households and consumers. One track of the program focuses on lack of access to electricity and reliance on traditional biomass fuels for cooking in the developing world. Another track analyzes the moral implications of existing energy policies and proposals, with an emphasis on the production and distribution of negative energy externalities and the impacts of energy use on the environment and social welfare. Recently, the team co-authored the introductory chapter titled Energy, Poverty, and Development: A Global Review for a multi-volume book.


Electricity has a bright future as both a clean and efficient source of energy and critical to that future is the transformation to a smart electric grid. At the center of the evolution of the smart electric grid is the introduction of new technology at the customer meter, as well as the distribution and transmission system level. This technological innovation has required that the road map to a smart electric grid become a partnership of electric utilities, technology companies and as we electrify our transportation system even the auto companies. Unsurprisingly, the introduction of this new technology, has presented legal, policy and regulatory challenges for state and federal policymakers and regulators. In 2010, the IEE initiated its Smart Grid Project, with an initial $450,000 in grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy with assitance from Vermont Congressman Peter Welch. The Smart Grid Project has produced multiple case studies of U.S. smart grid implementation, a model utility customer data privacy policy and published a new book "A Smarter, Greener Grid." The Smart Grid team in 2015 completed a book chapter on The Utility of the Future. In 2017 the Smart Grid team authored its second book on the Electric Battery as a Key to the Low Carbon Future.  This industry innovation has led to dynamic new career opportunities for both Masters and JD students who have embraced this transformation.  Vermont Law School's leading clean energy curriculum and the IEE's Smart Grid project provide unmatched opportunities to gain knowledge and experience in this exciting field.


With a grant for the Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, the IEE SunShot Plug-and-Play team, in collaboration with Fraunhofer U.S.A.'s Center for Sustainable Energy and 12 other partners, is working to develop a cost effective market-ready plug-and-play residential rooftop solar system. While the average installed price of solar has more than halved since 2010 to $3/watt (W), the Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative aims to halve that cost again, targeting $1.50/W installed cost for residential PV systems to make solar energy a truly viable option for the average American home. The SunShot Plug-and-Play project aims to make the $1.50/W target a reality within three years. Because it is designed to be easier and safer to install, much like plugging in an appliance, and will automatically connect to the local utility through smart microelectronic devices, the plug-and-play system is expected to dramatically reduce the installation, inspection, and permitting costs for small residential PV. The IEE SunShot Plug-and-Play team has conducted comprehensive research into the codes and standards (structural, electrical, and procedural) governing residential rooftop solar installations in the United States. It has identified various regulatory barriers to the Plug-and-Play concept, and continues to identify both technical and regulatory solutions to those barriers. The team will also help to develop a voluntary industry standard and advise the wider team on regulatory and policy concerns arising throughout the project.

BIOMASS Energy POlicy

The IEE's Biomass Energy Policy team has published two major reports recently. The most recent report, "On-Farm Biodiesel Production in Vermont: Legal and Regulatory Overview," reviews all Vermont state and federal regulations related to on-farm biodiesel production. Commissioned by the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative at the Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, the report aims to inform farmers about the potential laws and regulations surrounding on-farm biodiesel production.

In another report, The Biomass Energy Policy Team evaluated the need for additional state and regional policies and standards to promote a sustainable market structure for woody biomass in Vermont. Considering literature and legislation from the United States, Canada, and Europe, the IEE team looked into the main concerns and obstacles to incentivizing the use of woody biomass. The following questions were addressed: What would a sustainable biomass market structure look like? How efficient are Vermont's legal, regulatory, and monitoring tools for evaluating and responding to the cumulative impacts on forests that an increase in the woody biomass market would create? What improvements should be made to the legal, regulatory, and monitoring tools in Vermont to provide a sustainable market?


Capturing the Sun: A Roadmap for Navigating Data-Access Challenges and Auto-Populating Solar Home Sales Listings

More than 1.1 million homes in the United States have solar panels. Real estate multiple listing services (MLS) do not have a standardized method of reporting solar features which affects both sellers and buyers. Auto-populating solar data into MLS will allow sellers to capitalize on the value of their home and it will give more information to buyers seeking to purchase a solar home. Accessing the solar data is the key to auto-populating MLS and unlocking the value of solar.

Capturing the Sun provides a roadmap for unlocking the value of solar data. The Roadmap guides solar and real estate professionals through key challenges and provides the best path forward to get solar data into MLS. The Institute, working as a subcontractor to a Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) DOE grant, identified key legal hurdles limiting access to solar data. The Institute developed consent mechanisms to unlock existing solar data and crafted contract clauses to facilitate the transfer of future solar data.

Team Leaders: Mark James; Roxana-Andreea Mastor

Research Associates: Edward Schultz; Jack Wadleigh; Sherri White-Williamson