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GCET21 is organized and hosted this year by the three members of the GCET International Steering Committee, Janet E. Milne (Vermont Law School, USA), Mikael Skou Andersen (Aarhus University, Denmark) and Hope Ashiabor (Macquarie University, Australia). With the one-year postponement of the conference planned for Calgary, Canada, they decided to step into the breach and build a virtual conference to keep the GCET family—old and new—together during a time of COVID-19’s disruptions. We all look forward to gathering again in person in Calgary in September 2021 when GCET22 will be organized and hosted by the University of Lethbridge in Canada.

The Chairs thank the Ivey Foundation for its support of GCET21, and they thank administrative and technical staff at their home institutions for the assistance that has helped make GCET21 possible.


Janet E. Milne is Professor of Law and Director of the Environmental Tax Policy Institute at Vermont Law School, USA, where she has taught environmental taxation since 1994. Her research over the years has focused on the role of taxation in protecting the environment, with particular attention to climate change. Publications include Environmental Taxation and the Law (J. Milne, ed.), the Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation (J. Milne and M.S. Andersen, eds.), and How Durable is a Lockbox for Carbon Tax Revenue? (Pittsburgh Tax Review). Before joining the law faculty, she was tax legislative assistant to US Senator Lloyd Bentsen, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance, and an attorney at Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C. She received her J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center and clerked for Frank F. Coffin, Chief Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit.


Mikael Skou Andersen is Professor of Environmental Policy Analysis at Aarhus University’s Department of Environmental Science. His research addresses the greening of the economy, with focus on policy instruments, regulations and external costs related to environment and energy, especially the relationship between market-based instruments, governance institutions and technological innovations as a remedy for preventive and foresighted policies. He has undertaken research on carbon taxes, surveying as well their effectiveness in reducing emissions, implications for economic performance and the political circumstances for their introduction. His research has frequently been interdisciplinary, connecting with insights and models from the natural sciences, aiming to inform policy making in specific areas. Presently he is PI of the NORDFORSK funded research project NOWAGG: New Nordic Ways to Green Growth - strengthening the foundation for technological green growth innovation policy. Mikael Skou Andersen is member and vice-chair of the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency (EEA).


Dr. Hope Ashiabor is an Associate Professor of Law at the Macquarie Business School, Sydney , Australia. He is also a Chartered Tax Advisor with the Taxation Institute of Australia. His research is in the areas of environmental taxes, tax expenditures, the regulatory aspects of carbon finance, and international tax policy – areas in which he has published extensively. His most recent work is Tax Expenditures and Environmental Policy (Edward Elgar, UK, 2020). He is also co-editor to the leading series – Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation (Edward Elgar, UK), a member of the editorial board of the Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance, as well as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board to the Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. Hope has worked on consultancy projects for the OECD Environment Directorate -Paris, Ausaid, the Fiji Islands Inland Revenue and Customs Service, and the NSW Board of Studies. Prior to joining Macquarie, Hope worked as a state attorney; and before that was an in-house counsel to a commercial bank.