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Betsy Baker

Photo of Betsy Baker
Associate Professor, Senior Fellow for Oceans and Energy at Institute for Energy and the Environment

Dr. Jur., Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, 2000;
LLM, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, 1994;
JD, University of Michigan, 1982;
BA, Northwestern University, 1978

Phone: 802-831-1270


Books and Reports

  • (with B. Funston) PAME, The Arctic Ocean Review Project, Final Report, (Phase II 2011-2013), Kiruna May 2013. Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) Secretariat, Akureyri (2013), v, 99 pp.
  • Betsy [Baker] Röben, JOHANN CASPAR BLUNTSCHLI, FRANCIS LIEBER UND DAS MODERNE VÖLKERRECHT 1861-1881, Nomos Press, Baden-Baden 2003, with English summary: Johann Caspar Bluntschli, Francis Lieber and Modern International Law, 1861-1881, xii, 356 pp.

White Papers

  • B. Baker (ed.) with L. Campion, B. Jones, C. Peterson, R. Sidortsov, Z. Zhang, Implementing the Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines in the Greenland and the Russian Federation, Vermont Law School, Institute for Energy and the Environment, White Paper No. 5, February 2011, available at, Commissioned by the Inuit Circumpolar Conference for the Inuit Leaders Resource Development Summit
  • B. Baker (ed.) with L. Campion, K. Sedlacek, J. Garcia Lomas-Gago, Z. Zhang, Implementing the Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines in the United States and Canada, Vermont Law School, Institute for Energy and the Environment, White Papers Nos. 1-4, August-September 2010, available at
  • Marine Research Access in the Arctic Ocean: Background for Potential Guidelines in a Changing Arctic, with Hajo Eicken, unpublished White Paper available at (click on "download whitepaper")

Articles, Chapters, Abstracts

In Press / In Progress

  • The developing regional regime for the marine Arctic in E. Molenaar, A.G.O. Elferink, D. Rothwell (eds.), Law of the Sea and Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes, Brill/Martinus Nijhoff, publication expected summer 2013
  • The Legal and Regulatory Regime for Offshore Mineral Resources in the U.S. Arctic (with R. Sidortsov), chapter in a joint Russian-U.S. research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and University of Tulsa School of Law, publication expected October 2013
  • Linking Science Information in International Law: Using existing treaty obligations to improve information sharing in the Marine Arctic, chapter in S. Ali and R. Pincus (eds.), Diplomacy on Ice, Yale University Press, publication expected Fall 2013
  • “Participation in the Offshore Regulatory Process: Federal-Inuit Relations in Alaska and the Western Canadian Arctic,” in M. Nuttal (ed.), Geopolitical and Legal Aspects of Canada's and Europe's Northern Dimensions, Canadian Circumpolar Institute Press, publication expected Winter 2013
  • “International Law and the Arctic: How Territoriality, Human Rights and the Environment can Shape Shared Sovereignty,” in R.W. Murray and A.D. Nuttal (eds.), International Security and the Arctic: Examining the Theories and Policies of Circumpolar Politics, Cambria Press, publication expected Winter 2013
  • Marine Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Better Use of Science Information, paper in H. Scheiber and S. Lee (eds), Proceedings of the Symposium Securing the Ocean for the Next Generation, sponsored by the Law of the Sea Institute, School of Law, University of California, Berkeley and the Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI), May 23, 2012, Seoul, Korea, LOSI Institute, publication expected Summer 2013
  • “NAFTA’s Environmental Assessment Mechanisms and the Marine Environment” (working title), chapter in H. Kong and K. Wroth (eds.) NAFTA and Sustainable Development: The History, Experience and Prospects for Implementation, Cambridge University Press, publication expected Spring 2014


  • Offshore Oil and Gas Development in the U.S. Arctic, chapter in N. Loukacheva (ed), Polar Law Textbook, vol. 2, Norden Publishers
  • Common Precepts of Marine Scientific Research Access in the Arctic, in S. Wasum-Rainer, I. Winkelmann, K. Tiroch, eds., Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change (v. 235 of the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute’s “Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht,” (2012), 209-243
  • (with Sarah Mooney) The Legal Status of Arctic Sea Ice in the United States and Canada, 35 Polar Geography 1-19 (2012).
  • "Elisabeth Mann Borgese: Making her Way," in K. Kühn (ed.), Elisabeth Mann Borgese and the Drama of the Oceans. Publikation anlässlich des zehnten Todestages von Elisabeth Mann Borgese (Mare Verlag 2012), in cooperation with the IFM Geomar Institute for Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, published as part of the catalog for an exhibit on Mann Borgese’s life at the Buddenbrookhaus Museum in Lübeck, Germany
  • Offshore Oil and Gas Regulation in the Arctic: Room for Harmonization?, IV The Yearbook of Polar Law, 475–504 (2012)
  • “Oil, Gas, and the Arctic Continental Shelf: What Conflict?,” 2 Oil, Gas and Energy Law Intelligence Journal, OGEL (2012), special issue: Arctic Region: Boundaries, Resources and the Promise of Co-operation
  • “Uncommon Heritage: Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Pacem in Maribus, the International Ocean Institute and preparations for UNCLOS III,” 26 Ocean Yearbook, 11-34 (2012)
  • (with Larry Mayer and Capt. J. Ashley Roach (Ret.)) “Deepwater Horizon and the Arctic: Is There a Need for International Regulation?” in Myron H. Nordquist et al. (eds.) The Law of the Sea Convention: U.S. Accession and Globalization, Nijhoff/Brill (2012) 512-528, vol. 15 Center for Oceans Law and Policy
  • “Polar Science in the North and South: Tailoring Lessons from Antarctica to Improve Reliability of Legal Access for Marine Scientific Research to the Arctic Ocean,” in Doris König, Holger Hestermeyer et al., eds., Coexistence, Cooperation and Solidarity Liber Amicorum Rüdiger Wolfrum, Max Planck Institute of International Law, Nijhoff/Brill (2011), 671-692, Table of Contents pdf:
  • Law, Science and the Continental Shelf: The Russian Federation and the Promise of Arctic Cooperation, in 25 American University International Law Review 251 (2010)
  • Filling an Arctic Gap: Legal and Regulatory Possibilities for Canadian-U.S. Cooperation in the Beaufort Sea, in 34 Vermont Law Review 57 (2009)
  • The Precedential Judge Manley O. Hudson : Rivers, Oceans and Equity, in: R. Bratspies / R. Miller (eds), PROGRESS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, Nijhoff 2008, 451-472
  • “States Parties and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf” in: LIBER AMICORUM JUDGE THOMAS A. MENSAH: LAW OF THE SEA, PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES, R. Wolfrum / T. Malik Ndiaye (eds), Nijhoff 2007, 669-686
  • “ ‘Civilized Nations’ in the Work of Johann Caspar Bluntschli” in: POLITISCHES DENKEN IM 17. UND 18. JAHRHUNDERT, R. Reuter/ M. Kremer (Hrsg.), Kohlhammer 2007, 343-359
  • “Environmental Liability Legislation in the United States,” in ENVIRONMENTAL LIABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW: TOWARDS A COHERENT CONCEPTION, BERICHTE DES BUNDESUMWELTAMTES (REPORTS OF THE GERMAN FEDERAL ENVIRONMENT AGENCY), (C. Langenfeld, R. Wolfrum (eds), vol. 2/05, Erich Schmidt Verlag Berlin 2005
  • The New Partnership for African Economic Development, 63 ZaöRV/Heidelberg Journal of International Law 1063 (2003)
  • “International Law and the Institutions for Financing Sustainable Development after the Johannesburg Summit of 2002”, with Volker Röben, in U. Beyerlin (ed.), 63 ZaöRV /Heidelberg Journal of International Law 551 (2003)
  • “The Method behind Bluntschli’s ‘Modern’ International Law”, 4 Journal of the History of International Law 249 (2002)
  • “Judge Shigeru Oda and the Making of International Law”, in LIBER AMICORUM FOR JUDGE SHIGERU ODA, (N. Ando, R. Wolfrum, E. McWhinney eds. 2002), Kluwer Law International, 213
  • “Protection of Global Atmospheric Components,” “International Freshwaters,” “National Enforcement of Global Atmospheric Treaties,” and “Civil Liability as a Control Mechanism for Environmental Protection at the International Level,” four chapters in INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (F. Morrison, R. Wolfrum eds. 2000) Kluwer Law International, 201, 285, 603 and 821
  • "U.S.-Amerikanisches Umwelthaftungsrecht“ [U.S. environmental liability law], in UMWELTSCHUTZ DURCH INTERNATIONALES HAFTUNGSRECHT, FORSCHUNGSBERICHT IM AUFTRAG DES UMWELTBUNDESAMTES, BAND 7/98, Erich Schmidt Verlag Berlin (C. Langenfeld, R. Wolfrum eds. 1999)
  • “Environmental Liability Legislation in the United States”, in ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY MEANS OF INTERNATIONAL LIABILITY LAW, BERICHTE DES BUNDESUMWELTAMTES (REPORTS OF THE GERMAN FEDERAL ENVIRONMENT AGENCY), vol. 6/99, Erich Schmidt Verlag Berlin (C. Langenfeld, R. Wolfrum eds. 1999), 261
  • Protection, Not Protectionism: Multilateral Environmental Agreements and the GATT, 26 Vanderbilt J. Transnat'l L. 437 (1993)
  • (with Volker Röben) To Abduct or To Extradite: Does a Treaty Beg the Question? The Alvarez-Machain Decision in U.S. Domestic Law and International Law, 53 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht/Heidelberg Journal of International Law 657 (1993), cited by the German Constitutional Court (3. Kammer des 2. Senats), Ent. v. 19.10.1994 - 2BvR 435/87
  • Legal Protections for the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict, 33 Va. J. Int'l L. 352 (1993)
  • Eliciting Non-Party Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Treaties: U.S. Legislation and the Jurisdictional Bases for Compliance Incentives in the Montreal Ozone Protocol, 35 Germ. Y.B. Int'l L. 333 (1992)
  • Minding the Earth: Global Standards and Domestic Law, 49 Bench & Bar. Minn., May-June 14 (1992)
  • Constructing Justice: Theories of the Subject in Law and Literature, 75 Minn. L. Rev. 581 (1991)

Book Reviews

Book Reviews, Editorial Work, Shorter Pieces

  • Guest Editor, with Timo Koivurova, Climate and Carbon Law Review, Thematic Focus: Climate Change, Arctic Change: Law and Policy, Editorial, in Carbon and Climate Law Review 1/2012: 1-2
  • Cooperation, not Conflict: “Will the economic and geopolitical benefits of the Arctic meltdown outweigh its harmful effects on the Arctic's ecosystem and indigenous cultures and on world climate and ocean circulation?” Enduring Questions Essays Series, ABC-CLIO Publications, Fall 2010
  • EPIL: “The Hague Peace Conferences” and “Regional Seas,” two entries in R. Bernhardt, R. Wolfrum / Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative and Public International Law (eds), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW (Elsevier Science Ltd), 2010
  • Review of Syma Ebbin, SEA CHANGE: THE EEZ AND GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS FOR LIVING MARINE RESOURCES, in: 15 Ocean and Coastal Law Journal (2010) 161-166
  • Book Review: Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde, GESCHICHTE DER RECHTS- UND STAATSPHILOSOPHIE ANTIKE UND MITTELALTER, Mohr Siebeck 2002, in 3 German Law Journal, No. 12 - December 2002, Editor for Legal Culture,, an English language online journal on legal developments in German, international and European law
  • Assistant General Editor, LIBER AMICORUM FOR JUDGE SHIGERU ODA, (N. Ando, R. Wolfrum, E. McWhinney, eds. 2002), Kluwer Law International, 2 volumes
  • “Transboundary Environmental Cooperation. Prior Information/ Consultation/Environmental Impact Assessment,” in: G. Händl (ed. 1996)/J. Brunnée & E. Hey (eds. 1997-2002), Yearbook of International Environmental Law, volumes 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, Oxford 1996-2002
  • “Liberating Taiwan: Peaceful Offensive or Armed Might” (with Kong Qingjiang), Harvard Asian Law Journal 2000, 32-35
  • United Nations Volunteers, note for UNITED NATIONS HANDBOOK (R. Wolfrum ed. 1995)
  • NAFTA and Freshwater, U.S. Water News, October 1994
  • Book review, THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS (P. Sand ed. 1992), 87 Am.J.Int'l L. 198 (1994)
  • Book review, Frederic L. Kirgis, Jr., INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THEIR LEGAL SETTING, 2d ed. (1993), in 1 Soc. Int'l L. Interest Group on Int’l Organizations (1994)
  • Assistant Editor, volumes 34 (1992) and 35 (1993), German Yearbook of International Law

Blogs & Other